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Comfort Women Memorial: The Long Island Edition

This is what happens when the Japanese consulate acts like wankers:

A monument dedicated to the memory of Korean “comfort women” forced into sexual slavery during World War II was set up Saturday at the Veterans Memorial at Eisenhower Park in Westbury, New York.

The red granite monument symbolizes the hardship and blood of the comfort women, the Korean American Public Affairs Committee announced. Nassau County, which manages the memorial park, will also be in charge of maintaining the monument.
[...]
Korean-American organizations had talked with Nassau County for two weeks to set up the monument. Construction was carried out in secret for fear of resistance from the Japanese.

Would be nice if I could read the memorial.

Anyway, there might be more on the way, too.

About the author: Just the administrator of this humble blog.

  • http://koreanlanguagenotes.blogspot.com/ gbevers

    It is the Koreans who are acting like wankers, you wanker.

    The memorial is probably making the same baseless claim as the other: that “more than 200,000 women and girls” were “adducted by the Armed Forces of the Government of Imperial Japan.”

    It would be accurate to say that the United States military intentionally murdered hundreds of thousands of Japanese women and children in World War II.

  • http://koreanlanguagenotes.blogspot.com/ gbevers

    CORRECTION: It would be more accurate to say that the United States military intentionally murdered hundreds of thousands of Japanese women and children in World War II.

  • http://koreanlanguagenotes.blogspot.com/ gbevers

    Korean-American organizations had talked with Nassau County for two weeks to set up the monument. Construction was carried out in secret for fear of resistance from the Japanese.

    Of course, we wouldn’t want to get the other side of the story, would we?

  • numberoneoppa

    Yeah, this stuff’s getting really old.

  • red sparrow

    I wonder if gbevers ever summoned such an impressive hard-on for a woman (or otherwise, whatever the case may be).

  • Avaast

    Comfort Women Memorial Way, that’s got quite a ring to it. I wonder what it will be abbreviated to during traffic broadcasts?

  • hamel

    Of course, we wouldn’t want to get the other side of the story, would we?

    Isn’t that why you keep coming to this blog, Gerry? To give us the other side of the story?

  • Wedge

    Great, we’ll be getting one of these in every town in America with a Korean population.

  • http://koreanlanguagenotes.blogspot.com/ gbevers

    Hamel wrote (#7):

    Isn’t that why you keep coming to this blog, Gerry? To give us the other side of the story?

    No, Hamel, I come here to give people who have nothing worthwhile to say on the posted topic something to write about.

    The Japanese should start setting up their own monuments across the United States in the name of humanity and public awareness:

    In memory of the 1.2 million Korean civilians executed by the South Korean military and South Korean Police on the suspicion that they were supporting communism. They endured human rights violations that no peoples should leave unrecognized. Let us never forget the horrors of crimes against humanity.

    LINK

  • bballi bballi Paradise

    As much as Pawi, with his fanboy YB, loves to claim the title of supreme agitator I have to say that without a doubt, it is G.Bevers who agitates like no other

  • Q

    Nippon Foundation (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nippon_Foundation) created by Ryoichi Sasakawa (accused of Class A war criminal after World War II at the Tokyo War Crimes Trial) has influence to S. Korea. The Asia Research Fund at Yonsei University was created with the money of the far right-wing Japanese foundation. Ahn Byung-Jik of SNU also researched colonial history with the fund of the Toyota Foundation.

    It is sad Korean scholars receive money from the far right-wingers. Harvard and Yale Universities rejected fund from the fascist organization. Conscientious French scholars and government also rejected Sasakawa fund:

    http://www.japanfocus.org/-Karoline-Postel_Vinay/3349

    I’d assume some English writers about Korea have had relation with the Nippon Foundation too.

  • hamel

    The Japanese should start setting up their own monuments across the United States in the name of humanity and public awareness:

    It must be easy to make an argument when you don’t have to follow any usual rules of logic or sequitur.

  • http://koreanlanguagenotes.blogspot.com/ gbevers

    Hamel wrote (#12):

    It must be easy to make an argument when you don’t have to follow any usual rules of logic or sequitur.

    Let me try to dumb down my logic for you, Hamel, and any others who may not understand it.

    I took the inscription from the Comfort Women memorial and substituted a human rights atrocity committed by Koreans. Afterall, isn’t it the goal of the Korean supporters of the “Comfort Women” memorial to remind Americans to “never forget the horrors of crimes against humanity”?

    Shouldn’t Americans also be reminded never to forget that the 1.2 million Korean civilians who were executed by the South Korean military and the South Korean police because they were suspected of supporting communism?

  • inkevitch

    Thanks for clarifying that Bevers, otherwise we might have thought you had a valid point but it was just to obscured for us to understand.

    It would be up to the Korean people to put that monument up, particularly the Korean left. I am sure they appreciated your suggestion though.

    Surely you have an atrocity committed against the Japanese people you could have used as an example. I mean that would be equivalent right?

  • http://koreanlanguagenotes.blogspot.com/ gbevers

    Inkevitch wrote (#14):

    It would be up to the Korean people to put that monument up, particularly the Korean left. I am sure they appreciated your suggestion though.

    No, Inkevitch, we are talking about “crimes against humanity,” and the 1.2 million suspected Korean communists who were executed by the South Korean government were part of that humanity.

  • hamel

    Maybe, Mr. Bevers, you would like to see the United States set up some monuments memorializing massacres committed by Jews just outside the Holocaust museum in Washington D.C.?

  • Aram_Gureum

    Gbevers (another anti-Korean) doesn’t know that many Koreans and Chinese were abducted and tricked by the Japanese to work in those brothel comfort camps, estimated around 500,000 or more worked (other sources say its about 1 million) in those camps, near IJA bases. The memorial is for that. Don’t forget the Japanese used more than 2 million Korean laborers as “slave labour” before and during the wartime when they were used to built bunkers and fortification for the IJA.

    As for Bodo league massacre, historians say its around 200,000, not 1 million. The only source of it saying it’s 1 million is from Hankyoreh source, which itself is a lefty/liberal newspaper and their source is not even credible. The Korean government already apologized for the incident and its known in South Korea through memorials, the same for what happened in Jeju during the dictatorship period.

  • Aram_Gureum

    It’s quite funny how the Japanese media go rukus whenever a memorial is put in place either in Korea or outside. History is History, and that’s what happened back then.

    Some people here love to criticize Korea but don’t know the two sides of the coin all that well. Japan has their Senkaku/Diaoyu dispute islands, their claims on Korean Dokdo, their claims on Russian Kuril islands and their official denial of most warcrimes is enough to tell that Japanese still have this 1900s mindset.

  • http://pawikoreapics.blogspot.com/ pawikirogii 石鵝

    keep on talking, gerry. that’s all we need . it’s interesting that you don’t any talking about comfort women outside of these boards with their ready made anger choir. why is that, gerry? how come you only open your big mouth on korea related blogs? why not give a lecture on the truth, gerry, right in front of that memorial? we know you won’t be doing any of that cuz we know all of this ain’t about all of that, is it, gerry?

    how’s your ex-wife? may i offer you a piece of juicy fruit gum? it came from manila. your favorite, gerry.

  • http://koreanlanguagenotes.blogspot.com/ gbevers

    Hamel wrote (#16):

    Maybe, Mr. Bevers, you would like to see the United States set up some monuments memorializing massacres committed by Jews just outside the Holocaust museum in Washington D.C.?

    That’s exactly my point, you dense goofball. If city and state governments of the United States start allowing anyone with an axe to grind to set up monuments to victims of worldwide atrocities with the stated purpose of never forgetting “the horrors of crimes against humanity,” our parks, libraries, and other public places will soon be filled with a wide variety of monuments making disparaging, unproven claims against every people and every government in the world.

    The main motive of the Koreans setting up these comfort women monuments in the United States is not to remember the hardships of the comfort women, but to disparage Japan. That is what is so shameful about it.

    If they were really interested in having people “never forget the horrors of crimes against humanity,” then why aren’t they setting up other monuments dedicated to the Korean victims of atrocities committed by the South Korean govenment and other governments?

  • hamel

    Just to clarify, Gerry: is “goofball” a particularly bad insult in your books? It reminds me of “Leave it to Beaver”, where Wally would always tell the Beav to “quit goofing off.”

  • Aram_Gureum

    Gbevers is delusional, the fact that we have memorials from the budo league massacre and what happened in Jeju is a statement that the government apologizes for what its done. Anyway, the comfort women is a different story, perpetuated by a government who deny the truth.

  • http://www.xanga.com/wangkon936 WangKon936

    “… is not to remember the hardships of the comfort women, but to disparage Japan.”

    Oh my… how dare they disparage Japan! How dare they defiledo that to my Godfavorite country!

  • A4

    Please please watch this video before posting your comment.
    Essence of Comfort Women problem, lies of Korea, their contradiction are well explained in detail.

    Endangered Japan (Book 2): Sex, Lies, and Comfort Women
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iwv2qDJ57SY

  • http://koreanlanguagenotes.blogspot.com/ gbevers

    Aram_Gureum wrote (#22):

    Gbevers is delusional, the fact that we have memorials from the budo league massacre and what happened in Jeju is a statement that the government apologizes for what its done. Anyway, the comfort women is a different story, perpetuated by a government who deny the truth.

    If you have Bodo League Massacre memorials in Korea, then why not also set up memorials here in the United States to memorize the 1.2 million Korean civilians, including young girls as young as 12 and 13, executed by the South Korean government? Don’t we Americans also need to know what happened so that we “never forget the horrors of crimes against humanity”?

    Kim Il-sung’s communist army attacked from the North in June 1950, starting the Korean War.[10] According to Kim Mansik, who was a military police superior officer, President Syngman Rhee ordered the execution of Bodo League and South Korean Workers Party related people on 27 June,[11][12] the first massacre was started in Hoengseong, Gangwon-do on 28 June.[12][13] Retreating South Korean forces and anti communist groups[14] executed the alleged-communist prisoners, along with many of the Bodo League members.[4] The executions were without any trials.[15]

    United States official documents show American officers witnessed and photographed the massacre.[15] In one case a US officer is known to have sanctioned the killing of political prisoners to avoid their coming into enemy hands.[4][16] On the other hand, United States official document showed that John Muccio, then United States Ambassador to South Korea, made recommendations to South Korean President Rhee Syngman and Defense Minister Shin Sung-mo that the executions be stopped.[15] American witnesses also reported the scene of 12- or 13-year old girls’ executions.[15][6] The massacre was also reported to both Washington and General Douglas MacArthur.[4]

    There were also British and Australian witnesses.[4][17] Britain raised this issue with the U.S. at a diplomatic level, causing Dean Rusk, Assistant Secretary of State for Far Eastern Affairs, to inform the British that U.S. commanders were doing “everything they can to curb such atrocities”.[6]

    South Korean Retired Admiral Nam Sang-hui confessed that he authorized 200 victims’ bodies to be thrown into the sea, saying: “There was no time for trials for them.”[15]

    Video Link 1

    Video Link 2

  • A4

    gbevers.
    Please also add “LaiDaihan” and the slaughter of 300,000 private citizens by the Korean military in the Vietnam War to your list.

    “LaiDaihan”
    Children of mixed racial origins of half-Korean and half-Vietnamese. They were born by repetition of a rape of women during the Vietnam War by the Korean military. There are at least 5,000 people.
    Korean government have not made apology or have not provided positive protection yet.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lai_Daihan

  • http://koreanlanguagenotes.blogspot.com/ gbevers

    A4 wrote (#26):

    gbevers.
    Please also add “LaiDaihan” and the slaughter of 300,000 private citizens by the Korean military in the Vietnam War to your list.

    Maybe I should contact City Hall and discuss the possibility of setting up a monument in one of our parks or at one of our local libraries in memory of those 300,000 people. We actually have a lot of Vietnamese living in my city.

  • http://rjkoehler.com Robert Koehler

    Great, Gerry—keep the links to Nanjing Massacre deniers coming!

  • http://koreanlanguagenotes.blogspot.com/ gbevers

    Surely, Robert, you are not a Bodo League Massacre denier, are you?

  • http://rjkoehler.com Robert Koehler

    http://www.youtube.com/user/tohkondanzi?feature=watch

    (check out the .pdf linked on the sidebar)

  • http://pawikoreapics.blogspot.com/ pawikirogii 石鵝

    the wiki link on korean massacres is a joke. no sources cited and korea is the only country mentioned in the list of massacres in vietam. for example, who committed the maasacre at hue where up 6 thousand were slaughtered? the list seems to leave all that out. nice try, though.

  • A4

    Total number of the massacres could be joke just like the number and what is written on the monument of Palisade park.
    However, anybody can clearly confirm the major involvement of the Korean military in many of the massacres in the Vietnam War.

  • Q

    Yuki Tanaka’s research “Japan’s Comfort Women (Asia’s Transformations)” has a chapter Procurement of Korean and Taiwanese women. Here is an excerpt:

    Some testimonies of former comfort women indicate that Japanese police in Korea collaborated with sub-contracted labor brokers. It is believed that the military authorities asked the police in Korea to assist local sub-contractors, to whom the work of procurement was commissioned by comfort station owners/managers. The following testimony by a former comfort woman, Mun P’ilgi, for example, endorses such an interpretation.

    In our village there was a man in his fifties who worked as an agent for the Japanese. One day he approached me and told me he would give me an introduction to a place where I could both learn and earn money. I had been so resentful that I hadn’t been able to study, and his proposition was so attractive, that I told him I would like to take him up on the offer…. It was autumn 1943 and I was 18….

    After a few days, the man came to see me at dusk and told me to follow him. He said he wanted to take me somewhere for a few minutes. So I crept out of the house without saying anything to my parents. We walked for a little while, to a place not far from home. It was quiet; there were few houses around. There I saw there was a truck parked, with a Japanese policeman, Tanaka, who worked at the village police station.

    In the case of the “recruitment of Yun Turi, a young girl in Pusan, it seems that local policemen themselves were acting directly for a comfort station. According to Yun’s testimony:

    I was on my way home at about 5:00 or 6:00 p.m., and was passing the Nambu police station in front of Pusan railway station, when a policeman on guard duty called me over. He asked me to go inside, an I dutifully followed him, thinking nothing could happen because I hadn’t done anything wrong. It was sometime in early September 1943. There were three or four girls of my age already inside, and the policeman asked me to sit down. When I asked why, he said he would find me work in a nice place and told me to wait quietly …. At 11:00 p.m., a military truck arrived, and two soldiers loaded us on board.

    Yun was taken to No. 1 Comfort Station in Yongdo, an island just off Pusan, which was managed by a Japanese man called Takayama. Her mother and sister later found that Turi had been detained at this station, but they could not rescue her as the station was guarded by Japanese soldiers.

    The fact that the police were involved in the “recruitment” in the cases of Mun P’ilgi and Yun Turi (both in late 1943) implies that, toward the end of the war, the military authorities used the police force to procure women. This probably was due to the scarcity of young women at the time.

    Mobilization of the Korean labor force into war-related industries was greatly strengthened from 1943. In 1943 alone, nearly 140,000 people were mobilized by the Government-General (Yoshimi Yoshiaki, Jugun Ianfu, p.100). In September 1943, the “Women’s Voluntary Labor Service Corps” was organized throughout Korea. Through the corps many young, unmarried women were forced to “volunteer” for various types of work in wartime industries. In August 1944, a new law – the “Women’s Voluntary Labor Service Law” – was enacted. This allowed the Governor-General of Korea to force any unmarried woman between 12 and 40 years to engage in war-related labor for 12 months. Under this law a vast number of young girls were mobilized and many were sent to Japan to work at large industrial factories. This policy probably created the situation in which procurement of young Korea women for military comfort stations became difficult. As a result, it seems that the power of the police force was abused by the military authorities for the purpose of securing comfort women. According to testimonies of former comfort women, it appears that some representatives of the local Neighborhood Association, an organization that the Government-General required local civilians to establish, were also forced to act on behalf of owners/managers of comfort stations or their sub-contractors.

    Some girls accepted offers of “employment” by labor brokers, or through the mediation of leaders of the local Neighborhood Association, in order to avoid being drafted into the Women’s Voluntary Labor Service Corps. Ch’oe Myungsun was one of them. In January 1945, when she was 19 years old, she accepted an introduction by a representative of the Neighborhood Association to a “good job” in Japan. She was sent to Hiroshima to become a mistress of Japanese military officer for a couple of months. Then she was taken into a comfort station in Osaka, where she was forced to serve the Japanese soldiers until shortly before the end of the war.

    It was shortly after August 1944, when the Women’s Voluntary Labor Service Law was enacted, that a rumor spread in Korea that all unmarried girls over 14 years old would be forced to become comfort women. Many middle- and upper-class Korean families withdrew their daughters from women’s colleges and hurriedly arranged marriages for them to avoid their being drafted. However, some families in lower social strata felt trapped. For example, in September 1944, a girl called Kim T’aeson, who was then 19 years old and living with her uncle, was hiding in an attic of his house. One day when she came out of the attic and was having a meal downstairs, a Japanese man with a Korean partner visited the house, and offered her a “job” in Japan. Thinking that work in Japan would be a far better option than becoming a comfort woman, she accepted their offer. She ended up in a comfort station in Burma. In this way, in the late stage of war, the method of deceit was closely intertwined with the political coercion imposed upon the colonial subjects.

    It seems that in some cases an advance payment was made to a girl’s family in a similar manner in which women had been sold to civilian brothels in the 1920s and early 1930s. Yet in these cases, too, labor brokers rarely told the girls and their parents the truth. They would give a false impression that the girls would be working as nurses, housemaids or factory workers. A survey of 20 Korea women captured in Burma, conducted by the US Army forces in the India-Burma theater, reveals that they were deceived and mad to believe that their service would pay off family debts. The following is an extract from this official US survey:

    RECRUITING

    Early in May 1942 Japanese agents arrived in Korea for the purpose of enlisting Korean girls for “comfort service” in newly conquered Japanese territories in Southeast Asia. The nature of this “service” was not specified but it was assumed to be work connected with visiting the wounded in hospitals, rolling bandages, and generally making the soldiers happy. The inducement used by these agents was plenty of money, an opportunity to pay off the family debts, easy work, and the prospect of a new life in a new land – Singapore. On the basis of these false representations many girls enlisted for overseas duty and were rewarded with an advance of a few hundred yen.

    […] The contract they signed bound them to Army regulations and to work for the “house master” for a period of from six months to a year depending on the family debts for which they were advanced.

    Approximately 800 of these girls were recruited in this manner and they landed with their Japanese “house master” at Rangoon around August 20th, 1942. (The US National Archives collection, United States Office of War Information, Psychological Warfare Team Attached to US Army Forces India-Burma Theater, Japanese Prisoner of War Interrogation Reports, No. 49.

    The “housemaster,” i.e. the manager of this comfort station, was a Japanese man called Kitamura Eibun. Kitamura, his wife and sister-in-law had been running a “restaurant” in Kyongsong (now Seoul) before obtaining a commission to run a comfort station in Burma. Kitamura purchased 22 Korean women, who were aged 19 to 31, paying each family from 300 to 1,000 yen. In July 1942, Kitamura and his wife took these 22 women to Burma on a passenger ship which had more than 700 Korean women on board. The total amount of money Kitamura used for advance payments must have been more than 10,000 yen, a large sum of money – surely beyond the means of a small “restaurant” owner at that time. It is therefore speculated that the money may have been made available by the Japanese military authorities.

    For more reading at google book: http://tinyurl.com/bpy8nrf

    For purchasing: http://www.amazon.com/Japans-Comfort-Women-Asias-Transformations/dp/0415194016

  • A4

    Yuki Tanaka is a false name of men of Hiroshima peace institute called Toshiaki Tanaka. The name “Yuki” is recognized by the name of the woman to Japanese. He is also a coordinator of Japan Focus (www.japanfucus.org).
    He mainly carry anti-Japan activity for foreign countries and can not publish “the Japan’s Comfort Women (Asia’s Transformations)” in Japan (though he is Japanese ) because there is no objective evidence that he can prove, and his books are full of contradiction which Japanese can find out immediately false message.
    It is said that he writes a book with a feminine false name in order to emphasize a victim-like viewpoint. His books are published at famous left wing publishing company called “Otsuki Shoten”
    The Hiroshima peace institute where he belongs is located in Hiroshima City Univ, and the director is from former Ministry of Foreign Affairs China section, name is Motofumi Asai. Asai is pro-China and also pro-North Korea. He gave a lecture with Democratic Koreans officials in General Association of Korean Residents in Japan after nuclear test declaration of North Korea. Hiroshima peace institute should be an inner citadel of the antinuclear movements, but is originally the organization agreeing to a North Korean nucleus. They insist that “the red nucleus is nucleus of the peace”. The actual situation of the research institute is the pro-north Korea think-tank. Of course Toshiyuki Tanaka does not have the important “neutral viewpoints” and his books are based on the second document which is a collection of testimony of the support group translated into English, thus his books are not quoted to a serious researcher.
    However, the U.S.A. Lower House led by the Representative Mike Honda who did not know anything quoted a written by Yuki Tanaka in the report of the comfort women problem, and a forgery was found out later, and the U.S. Congressional Research Service revised a report greatly and finally concluded comfort women problem as “The military may not have directly carried out the majority of recruitment, especially in Korea” on April 3rd 2007.
    http://ianfu.blogspot.jp/2007/04/congressional-research-service-report.html
    http://japanfocus.org/data/CRS%20CW%20Report%20April%2007.pdf

    It is said that Yoshimi Yoshiaki who you also quoted from is the highest authority of comfort women problem. But he also admitted that he could not find any objective evidence of forced mobilization of comfort women by the Japanese military in Japanese TV program called “Asamade nama TV” (朝まで生テレビ) on January 3rd 1997.

  • Q

    Yuki Tanaka’s research “Japan’s Comfort Women (Asia’s Transformations)” has a chapter Why comfort women?:

    There were several reasons why the Japanese military decided that comfort stations were necessary. As mentioned previously, Japanese military leaders were very concerned about the rape of civilians by members of the Japanese armed forces – but not out of concern for those civilians. For good strategic reasons, they believed that the antagonism of civilians in occupied territories towards their conqueror was exacerbated by such behaviour. They also believed that a ready supply of women for the armed forces would help to reduce the incidence of rape of civilians.

    Was the exploitation of women in military-controlled comfort stations effective in preventing widespread random sexual violence by Japanese soldiers? The initiator of the Japanese army comfort women system, General Okamura, reflecting on the Japanese invasion of Wuhan in 1938, stated that random sexual violence occurred in spite of the fact that the Japanese forces had groups of comfort women attached to them. He admitted, therefore, that his scheme was a failture.

    Until it was revised in February 1942, the Japanese Imperial Army Criminal Law (Article 86, Clause 2) stated that army personnel who committed rape at the same time as looting would be punished by between seven years and life imprisonment. Here rape was regarded as a secondary crime, incidental to looting. It was also a general trend in the Japanese Imperial forces that looting and rape, in particular during combat operations as a means of arousing the fighting spirit in their men. Therefore, it is not surprising that only a small number of soldiers were convicted of rape under this code of conduct each year. In 1939, 15 men were found guilty of looting, rape and manslaughter. Only four soldiers in 1940 and a mere two men in 1941 were convicted of the same crimes. (This statistical data appears in the report entitled The Roll of Court-Martialled Personnel, Compiled in 1942, which was submitted by Oyama Fumio, head of the Legal Affairs Bureaus of the Japanese Imperial Army, to the prosecutors at the Tokyo War Cimes Tribunal after the war.) This Japanese official military data look absurd when it is compared with actual evidence, such as various testimonies presented at the Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal regarding the Rape of Nanjing.

    On February 20, 1942, the law was revised to acknowledge rape as a single major criminal offense. The amended article reads that “those who commit rape in the battlefield or in the territory of the Empire will be imprisoned for between on year and life,” for the reason that “rape in the occupied territory is fundamentally different from rape in the national territory and will defame the Empire.” In other words, rape of women in occupied territories was regarded as a crime under the revised Army Criminal Law mainly because it brought disgrace on the name of the Japanese Empire, not because rape itself constituted a serious crime against humanity. Thus, in actual cases, it remained extremely rare that a soldier or officer rapist was court-martialed. The fundamental problem was that, regardless of what the law stipulated, rape of civilians in occupied territories was not considered a serious criminal act by Japanese military men. In fact, in his report about particular battlefield problems in China in 1939, Dr. Hayao Takeo, a medical officer and professor in psychiatry, stated that many officers deemed it necessary for their soldiers to rape women in order to stimulate aggression.

    The following testimony by General Okamura shows how reluctant even senior officers were to prosecute offenders. In August 1938, the Chief of Staff of the 11th Army reported to Okamura (then commander of this army) that some of their own soldiers had gang-raped the wife and daughter of chief of one Chinese village in their occupied are. When Okamura was told that local civilians were refusing to co-operate in construction work of a Japanese military airfield because of this sexual violence, he ordered the kempeitai to arrest the offenders. However, the kempeitai chief told Okamura that the criminal act could not be established because the victims had not reported it. Hence, it would be inappropriate to prosecute the men. Okamura was shocked by the fact that the Army Judicial Chief also supported this kempeitai officer’s opinion.

    What the military leaders, including General Okamura, apparently did not consider was the possibility that the highly oppressive and racist culture of their armed forces might be contributing to the problem. Thus, at least part of the solution would be to reform the military structure as well as to re-educate the men, to change their attitudes towards other Asian people in general, and towards women in particular.

    As I also have mentioned, military leaders believed that that provision of comfort women was the most appropriate means of providing their men with some kind of leisure. Unlike US and other Allied soldiers, the rank and file of the Japanese military forces did not have designated leave periods or limited tours of duty. Military leaders had been advised by some senior medical staff that they should make greater provision for both the health and well-being of their men, including such measures as extended home leave. However, most of these suggested measures were never implemented. The notable exception was the provision of comfort women. Another concern of military leaders was the incidence of VD among the armed forces. They believe that VD threatened to undermine the strength of their men (and hence their fighting ability). They also feared the spread of the disease could potentially create massive public health problems back in Japan, once the war was over. The leaders believed that a regulated system, such as the comfort stations, would enable them to take effective preventive health measures. The measures they employed were thorough if not completely effective. Those “recruited” were mostly young, unmarried women because it was believe they were the least likely to be infected with VD. Army doctors regularly checked the health of the comfort women to ensure that they had not contracted VD. Most of the women were examined for VD once a week or every ten days. The men were provided with condoms free of charge and were instructed to apply prophylactic chemicals immediately before and after associating with comfort women.

    However, such measures could not prevent VD, even if they went some way towards reducing its incidence. For instance, according to a report by medical officers of the 15th Division in north China in 1942 and 1943, 15 to 20 percent of comfort women were found to be suffering from VD each month. Evidence from former comfort women suggests the figure could have been much higher. This was probably due to the fact that many soldiers refused to use condoms and did not bother applying prophylactic disinfectants. Numerous former comfort women testify that they had great difficulty in making men use condoms. Official statistical data of VD patients among the Japanese Army Forces in war zones between 1942 and 1944 also show a small increase in the number of cases (11,983 in 1942; 12,557 in 1943; and 12587 in 1944). It is presumed that the real figures were higher.

    Another reason for the difficulty of reducing the high VD rate among Japanese troops was the disciplinary provision by which if a soldier was found to be infected with VD, he would be demoted two ranks. This punitive measure discouraged soldiers who were suffering from VD from reporting to their medical officers. Instead many secretly purchased medicines at a civilian pharmacy or on the black market. Needing money to obtain such expensive medicines, the soldiers were driven to looting.(Suzuki Yoshio, “Kagaisha no Shogen: Ianfu kara Minue-banashi o Kiita” in Sekai No. 637, Iwanami Shoten, Tokyo, July 1997, pp. 120-121) Thus, the stringent VD control methods imposed upon soldiers as well as comfort women did not really alleviate the problem. Furthermore, they led to an increase in crimes committed by the Japanese men.

    A further concern was security. Military leaders believed that private brothels could easily be infiltrated by spies and that prostitutes working in them could easily be recruited as spies. Kempeitai members were frequent visitors to comfort stations and kept close tabs on the women to ensure there were no spies among them. In order to limit the women’s contact with people outside comfort stations as much as possible, they were not allowed to go outside the premises by themselves. So severely were they restricted that permission was required for them even to go for a walk to get fresh air.

    The comfort women were treated as “military supplies,” but relevant document were either hidden or destroyed at the end of the war. It is impossible to know, therefore, how many women were exploited. The best estimates range from 80,000 to 100,000. According to the Japanese military plan devised in July 1941, 20,000 comfort women were required for every 800,000 Japanese soldiers, or one woman for every 40 soldiers (This estimate is based upon a report that the Kuwantung Army of 800,000 men planned to mobilize 20,000 Korean comfort women during the so-called “Kuwantung Army Special Maneuvres” in July 1941). There were 3.5 million Japanese soldiers sent to China and Southeast Asia during the war, and therefore, by this calculation, an estimated 90,000 women were mobilized. Of these women 80 percent are believed to have been Koreans, but many also came from Taiwan, China, the Philppines, Indonesia, and Malaysia.

    Why were comfort women almost invariably from Taiwan, China, or various places in Southeast Asia, and above all Korea? This might seem odd at first, given that the Japanese were notorious for their racism towards the people of other Asian countries. However, racial prejudice provides part of the answer to the question – that very racism helped make these women suitable for the role of comfort women. Japanese prostitutes did serve the military abroad during the war, but most were in a different position from the comfort women. The Japanese prostitutes mainly worked in comfort stations that served high-ranking officers, and they experienced better conditions than the Asian comfort women. Apart from the difficulty in recruiting Japanese women into comfort stations, Japanese military leaders did not believe Japanese women should be in that role. Their mission was to bear and bring up good Japanese children, who would grow up to be loyal subjects of the Emperor rather than being the means for men to satisfy their sexual urges. The Japanese wartime government took its lead from Nazi eugenic ideology and policy in these matters. In 1940 the National Eugenic Law was proclaimed. The purposes of the law were to prevent miscegenation and the reproduction of the “unfit,” such as those with mental illness that was believed to be inherited.
    According to widely held Japanese views at the time, a supreme virtue for a woman was to serve her husband from the time of her marriage until the end of her life. During the war, the Ministry of Health actually recommended that war widows remain loyal to their deceased husbands by not marrying, unless they were less than 36 years old. In 1943, when Professor Kaneko Takanosuke from the Tokyo College of Commerce argued in a popular woman’s magazine, Fujin Koron, that all war widows should be encouraged to remarry, the military authorities demanded that the published issue a public apology. In addition, the government-regulated distribution of paper to this published was considerably reduced for the rest of the war period. So hypocritical was the Japanese military leaders’ attitude that on the on hand they strongly demanded that Japanese women be chaste, while on the other they did not hesitate to preside over the extreme sexual exploitation of other Asian women.
    Korean and Taiwanese women were particularly targeted as sourced of comfort women, only because of the political and economic environment of these countries as Japan’s colonies in which young women were easily procures, but also in light of their cultural proximity to Japan. Japanese language was compulsory in Korea and Taiwan, and people in these countries were heavily indoctrinated in loyalty to the Emperor and respect for Japan as their suzerain state. Physical similarity between Japanese and Korean or Taiwanese also may have been a factor favoring procurement of women there.
    In this was, Japanese forces exploited large number of Asian women under the excuse of preventing rape and VD. It must be concluded, however, that provision of comfort women did not function as an effective measure for either problem, and in particular for the problem of random sexual violence against civilians in occupied territories. Despite such official justifications for the program, it should not be forgotten that the women involved in the comfort women system were themselves victims of systematic, institutional rape and sexual slavery.

  • chuka

    I am a Japanese and a history buff.
    The issue about comfort women is not about Korea-Japan lover- hate relationship, but a issue about the human right.
    Japanese women had no right to own property, no right to enter the contract, no right to marry with a man they choose.
    They were allowed to be sold into the indenture system by non other than their legal guardians such as their fathers, borthers with money.
    Japanese women were legally sub-humans. Pre-war public prostitution and war time comfort women were nothing more than the government sanctioned sex slavery.
    Japanese Imperial military in occupied southern Asia had used force to procure comfort women among the local ppopulation, colonial Dutch and Allied female POW. This is history well recorded in other lunguage than Japanese.

    ” Comfort women” by Yuki Tanaka is not discussed widely in Japan because most of Japanese do not read English books, even news paper articles which is very easy to read for Japanese with high school education and over.
    I have read the book mentioned above and it is well written and easy to read.

    There were many, many Japanese who had fought hard for the freedom and human right in our history and we should never ever forget the proud history of such Japanese people.
    Japanese imperial soldiers proudly called themselves as “Empreror’s groins and elbows”. Now you know there was no human right for them, either.

  • A4

    True history buff never call oneself a history buff.

  • A4

    Those Koreans does not see the consequence of the forgery which will call hatred. The present Democratic Party (which is pro-Korea) in Japan will disappear within one year and the Liberal Democratic Party which is nationalistic will come back as the cabinet. If the Liberal Democratic Party cancels continuation of the currency swap with Korea, it will ruin exchange value of Korean won (which is too weak and too much rely of foreign demand. )
    Korean Government deceives the people by rising power of Samsung, LG, Hyundai, and K-pop but most of the profit is absorbed by foreign capital, and Korean gets nothing but the salaries. The economy of Korea is multiple debt and already critical. If Japan does not guarantee a value of the currency, Korea will die out and go back to IMF support.
    Also, Japan can support Vietnam to build monuments both 300,000 massacres in the Vietnam War and “LaiDaihan” in foreign countries just like the monuments in the Palisade park.
    These reaction could be seen in the future if they continue those action.

  • Q

    I’d like to remind you of the news article “Ex-Soros Adviser Fujimaki Says Japan May Default by 2017″:

    http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2012-06-15/ex-soros-adviser-fujimaki-says-japan-to-probably-default-by-2017.html

  • A4

    It just expose your ignorance. Confirm the government bonds interest rate of each country.
    http://www.tradingeconomics.com/bonds-list-by-country

  • Q

    You’d better ask Mr. Fujimaki about the economy of Japan:

    “Japan is likely to default before Europe does, which could be in the next five years”

    “The yen and the JGB market are in a bubble,” Fujimaki said. “With the gigantic debt Japan has accumulated, a thin needle, or even a gentle breeze may pop this. Events in Europe can possibly trigger this to blow up.”

    “There’s no way out of Japan’s crisis,” Fujimaki said. “The only option left for Japan is either default or print money into hyper-inflation.”
    (from the #39 news article)

  • A4

    Let me teach some of politics and economy to ignorance like you.

    1. The opinion of active investors does not serve as a reference.
    Do you tell the profit talk to somebody?
    There is always a political interest on the back of the article of investors. For example, They take reverse action to what they wrote in the article to make profit, or they write article to incite impending crisis by a request of Ministry of Finance in order to raise a tax rate.
    As for the opinion of active investors, reliability is the lightest.

    2. Japan is a world’s best creditor nation. The debt of Japan looks that there are many at a glance, but most (more than 90%) are kept in the country because Japan has much assets than the dept.

    3. Just think why value of Japanese Yen get so strong and maintain the interest rate of government bonds lower than 1% at the time of global economic crisis like now. This is because Japanese Yen and Japanese government bonds are evaluated as the safest assets worldwide by foreign investors.

    It seems that you always bring messy reports, please bring more reliable report from now on.

  • Q

    I’d give more credit to Bloomberg article than a random commenting Japanese nationalist. Here is more recent one on doomed economy of Japan:

    Fujimaki isn’t alone in worrying that the yen and the government bond market are enormous bubbles. Such concerns typically come from New York or London, not a major figure in Japanese finance.

    Faith in those in power enabled Japan’s nuclear lobby to convince residents of one of the most seismically active nations anywhere that they needed 54 reactors. It is a remarkable paradox: The only nation attacked with atomic weapons, where the shadow of that holocaust still lingers, has made nuclear power the core of its energy grid.

    The trust is ebbing and has been for years. The public doesn’t believe that Japan’s reactors are any safer today than they were before last year’s quake. If the day ever comes when they don’t believe Japan’s debt is safe, the fiscal damage might be irreparable. It’s hard to see how Noda is the man with the fighting spirit to make a difference.

    http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2012-06-21/debt-nuclear-plants-signal-brewing-japanese-crisis.html

  • A4

    Ex-Soros Adviser Fujimaki already sold his soul to U.S.A. as he had worked for Soros. Just read any of his books once. Any of his books drives a crisis and end up story that you must change your invest to U.S. dollar and American government bonds because these are always the safest assets. As I said, there is always a political interest on the back of the article of investors.

    Bring more reliable article and write your own opinion.

  • Q

    If it were before Fukushima catastrophe, I’d be likely to buy your view, but the nuclear disaster has made it totally different story. The aggravating radiation contamination would be detrimental to the economy of Japan, especially Metropolitan Tokyo.

    http://www.bloomberg.com/video/94955337-ex-soros-adviser-says-japan-may-default-by-2017.html

  • Q

    ABC Australia interviewed nuclear engineer Hiroaki Koide (Kyoto Univ. Research Reactor Institute). He said:

    “Depending on which way the wind is blowing, Tokyo could become uninhabitable.”

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Eg4CMqx_k9A&feature=player_embedded

  • cm

    #46, that video sounds highly worrisome. Japan should be asking for world’s advice and help, but their national pride prevents them from doing so. Instead, they hide the evidence and pretend nothing’s wrong. If Japan becomes uninhabitable, so will Hawaii and west coast of North America. It becomes a world’s problem, not just Japan’s. I really hope they solve this problem before it’s too late.

  • jk6411

    #46,

    Holy crap. The situation at Fukushima is a lot more serious than I thought.
    It’s like a huge nuclear time bomb.
    Japan should definitely get its act together and fix the problem ASAP.
    This is not just Japan’s problem. It could become a global catastrophe.

  • A4

    Nations with nuclear weapons had performed nuclear weapon test 2,379 times (an atmospheric nuclear test 502 times) in the past (mainly U.S.A and Russia during the Cold War)
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_nuclear_weapons_tests
    http://www.youtube.comwatchv=LLCF7vPanrY&feature=player_embedded
    The radioactive materials had spread all over the world.
    Cesium-137 has environmental half life of 180-320 years.
    Plutonium has half -life of 20,000 years.
    Soil and water on the earth are already polluted. It is too late to worry.

    Over 500 atmospheric nuclear weapons tests were conducted at various sites around the world from 1945 to 1980. As public awareness and concern mounted over the possible health hazards associated with exposure to the nuclear fallout, various studies were done to assess the extent of the hazard. A Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/ National Cancer Institute study claims that nuclear fallout might have led to approximately 11,000 excess deaths, most caused by thyroid cancer linked to exposure to iodine-131.[13]
    § United States: As of March 2009, the U.S. is the only nation that compensates nuclear test victims. Since the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act of 1990, more than $1.38 billion in compensation has been approved. The money is going to people who took part in the tests, notably at the Nevada Test Site, and to others exposed to the radiation.[14][15]
    § France: In March 2009, the French Government offered to compensate victims for the first time and legislation is being drafted which would allow payments to people who suffered health problems related to the tests. The payouts would be available to victims’ descendants and would include Algerians, who were exposed to nuclear testing in the Sahara in 1960. However, victims say the eligibility requirements for compensation are too narrow.[14]
    § Britain: There is no formal British government compensation program. However, nearly 1,000 veterans of Christmas Island nuclear tests in the 1950s are planning to sue the Ministry of Defense for negligence. They say they suffered health problems and were not warned of potential dangers before the experiments.[14]
    § Russia: Decades later, Russia offered compensation to veterans who were part of the 1954 Totsk test. However, there was no compensation to civilians sickened by the Totsk test. Anti-nuclear groups say there has been no government compensation for other nuclear tests.[14]
    § China: China has undertaken highly secretive atomic tests in remote deserts in a Central Asian border province. Anti-nuclear activists say there is no known government program for compensating victims.[14]
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_weapons_testing

  • Q

    At the interview with ABC Autralia about Fukushima disaster (#46), Misuhei Murata, former Japanese ambassador to Switzland, said:

    “I would call it the sickness of Japan. First, we hide, then we postpone, and then we assume no responsibility.”

    I’d estimate the same goes with comfort women and other Korea-Japan issue.

  • Q

    Switzerland

  • A4

    The same thing is said to Korean.

    George Wehrfritz from Newsweek Magazine pointed out:
    “Koreans have never much liked looking inward. They point their fingers at imperial Japan’s past atrocities. But their own war record–the brutal civil war, the bloody involvement in the Vietnam War–has long been taboo.”
    http://www.thedailybeast.com/newsweek/2000/04/09/fallen-heroes.html

  • Q

    I do hope any unjust violoence during Vietnam war be revealed and victims commemorated as much as comfort womens remembered. :)

  • Josh

    Japan bombed Pearl Harbor killing Americans, in addition to hundreds of thousands Asians in Asia!!!  What is your problem with stopping the atrocities of the Imperial Japan at the time?

  • Josh

    Denial will not stop this issue.  Come clean like the Germans and move on!!

  • jk6411

    I don’t know where this clown got the figure of 300,000 Vietnamese killed by South Korean military.
    If you follow the link he provided and then look up the attached list of massacres in Vietnam,  you find a total of  2,570 killed by South Korean forces.

  • Byeonguk Yook

    Japanese civilians were mislead by Japanese propaganda that Americans would commit atrocities on them. Some of them chose to commit suicide. 

  • Byeonguk Yook

    I think we heard plenty of denial from the Japanese there is nothing further to add. 

  • Byeonguk Yook

    The conduct of Korean troops in vietnam was good. There was one case in which couple fo soldiers were accused of rape and when the commander investigated, including asking the villagers it became apparent they were guilty. He had them shot on the spot. The Korean troops were so effective that the communist gave out orders not to engage Koreans unless victory was certain. It also led them to demonize Koreans in their propaganda. Maybe that is where this 300,000 came from. That is not to say Koreans were perfect. They did commit atrocities here and there but no where near what this anti Korean propaganda makes them out to be. 

  • Byeonguk Yook

    Yeah but are they pro communist vietnamese or anti communist? There were people who flet vietnam to escape the communist who were resettled in US. 

  • Byeonguk Yook

    Japan being the ‘best’ creditor nation doesn’t have any bearing here.
    Japan Yen is very strong because it is the victim of carry traders ganging up on it due to near zero interest rate. In a currency market the volume of trade is abotu 4 trillion dollars a day if a substantial chunk of that ganged up on the yen it is more than enough to overwhelm Bank of Japan selling Yen. what does this do to japan? It makes exports too pricey. Carlos Ghosn of Nissan has told the government to do something about this. Japan is hollowing out. Toyota and Honda will continue to move production out of Japan. This is not just in cars but in other fields. Employment prospects for Japanese are hurting. 

    Government Bonds are the only places that money in Japan gets put in because other alternatives such as corporate Bonds and stocks are not good. Just look at companies like Sony and Panasonic suffering big losses. The domestic economy is stagnant meaning that businesses will nto be looking to take on more debt to finance their business i.e. loans from banks. 
    What does this due when domestic cash stampedes to government bonds? It is a seller’s market. Seller sets the rate in this case very low interest rates and buyers will buy no matter what because there is very little alternative. Safe haven? My ass. That is what the press says especially pro Japanese clowns(nationalists). 

    The finance minister has said that if the interest rates jump to 3% they will have trouble financing their debt which is over 200% of GDP. Highest in the developed world. Yet they keep spending. Why do Japanese keep deficit spending because they want to fund their pet projects (pork barrellling). How come Japan has so many unnecessary airports? All these unnecessary infrastructure projects, looks nice but are they useful?

    94% of the debt is held domestically. They have resorted to have idols and sumo wrestlers promote government bond sales. I am wondering have they reached the point where they are scraping the bottom of the barrel exhausting domestic savings? If they exhaust that and resort to external bond market they will have to jack up their rates. Unfortunately for them 3% is a resonable rate not like 7% of spain which is high. 

  • Byeonguk Yook

    Because of the nuclear disaster they shut down nuclear reactors meaning the shortfall is made by energy imports. That has caused the trade surplus to go to deficit for the first time since 1969. Look at their current account. It went from $195B in 2010 to $125 Billion in 2011. If this trend keeps up the Japanese will have to begin repatriating their assets, about 3-4 trillion dollars worth which has been earning interest propping their current account to surplus. The problem with that is that will shoot the value of the yen like it did when the earthquake and tsunami struck last year. Further hollowing out Japan.

  • Byeonguk Yook

    What was done in the Korean War and in Vietnam pales in comparison to WWII atrocities. There are Koreans who are researching this stuff it may not be as well publicized but there is definately being looked at. Put this up next to WWII atrocities  it will pale in comparison. 

    I doubt the Japanese have the courage to set up something like the Truth and Reconciliation Commission.

  • Byeonguk Yook

    If Fukushima goes before they remove all the fuel rods then Japan won’t be the only place that will in inhabitable. They could well irradiate all of the northern hemisphere. 

  • Byeonguk Yook

    I don’t think they are like that to Korean only. Look at their stance on the Nanjing Massacre. 

  • Toshiaki Haginoya

    Why do Americans kowtow to Koreans?
    Comfort Women Issue is part of defamation campaign of Koreans against Japan based on conjured up fake stories and lies.
    Visit this site to find the truth:
    False Accusations of Comfort Women
    http://www.howitzer.jp/korea/page03.html

  • Toshiaki Haginoya

    Koreans should be ashamed of:
    1) using comfort womem forced slavery story, which is total fabrication/hoax, as the
    means of smearing campaign to defame Japan;
    2) admiring the terrorist/assassin who killed Ito Hirobumi as their hero;
    3) renouncing the entry of Ou Sonfa, a book author criticizing Korea, to their country.
    It seems Koreans live in a stone-age society.